Iuvenal Satire Essays

The Satires are a collection of satirical poems by the Latin author Juvenal written in the early 2nd centuries AD.

Juvenal is credited with sixteen known poems divided among five books; all are in the Roman genre of satire, which, at its most basic in the time of the author, comprised a wide-ranging discussion of society and social mores in dactylic hexameter.[1] The sixth and tenth satires are some of the most renowned works in the collection. The poems are not individually titled, but translators have often added titles for the convenience of readers.

  • Book I: Satires 1–5
  • Book II: Satire 6
  • Book III: Satires 7–9
  • Book IV: Satires 10–12
  • Book V: Satires 13–16 (Satire 16 is incompletely preserved)

Roman Satura was a formal literary genre rather than being simply clever, humorous critique in no particular format. Juvenal wrote in this tradition, which originated with Lucilius and included the Sermones of Horace and the Satires of Persius.[2] In a tone and manner ranging from irony to apparent rage, Juvenal criticizes the actions and beliefs of many of his contemporaries, providing insight more into value systems and questions of morality and less into the realities of Roman life. The author employs outright obscenity less frequently than Martial or Catullus, but the scenes painted in his text are no less vivid or lurid for that discretion.

The author makes constant allusion to history and myth as a source of object lessons or exemplars of particular vices and virtues. Coupled with his dense and elliptical Latin, these tangential references indicate that the intended reader of the Satires was highly educated.[3] The Satires are concerned with perceived threats to the social continuity of the Roman citizens: social-climbing foreigners, unfaithfulness, and other more extreme excesses of their own class. The intended audience of the Satires constituted a subset of the Roman elite, primarily adult males of a more conservative social stance.

Scholarly estimates for the dating of the individual books have varied. It is generally accepted that the fifth book must date to a point after 127 A.D., because of a reference to the Roman consul Iuncus in Satire 15.[4] A recent scholar has argued that the first book should be dated to 100 or 101.[5] Juvenal's works are contemporary with those of Martial, Tacitus and Pliny the Younger.

Manuscript tradition[edit]

The controversies concerning the surviving texts of the Satires have been extensive and heated. Many manuscripts survive, but only P (the Codex Pithoeanus Montepessulanus), a 9th-century manuscript based on an edition prepared in the 4th century by a pupil of Servius Honoratus, the grammarian, is reasonably reliable. At the same time as the Servian text was produced, however, other and lesser scholars also created their editions of Juvenal: it is these on which most medieval manuscripts of Juvenal are based. It did not help matters that P disappeared sometime during the Renaissance and was only rediscovered around 1840. It is not, however, uncommon for the generally inferior manuscripts to supply a better reading in cases when P is imperfect. In addition, modern scholarly debate has also raged around the authenticity of the text which has survived, as various editors have argued that considerable portions are not, in fact, authentically Juvenalian and represent interpolations from early editors of the text. Jachmann (1943) argued that up to one-third of what survives is non-authentic: Ulrick Knoche (1950) deleted about hundred lines, Clausen about forty, Courtney (1975) a similar number. Willis (1997) italicizes 297 lines as being potentially suspect. On the other hand, Vahlen, Housman, Duff, Griffith, Ferguson and Green believe the surviving text to be largely authentic: indeed Green regards the main problem as being not interpolations but lacunae.[6]

In recent times debate has focused on the authenticity of the "O Passage" of Satire VI, 36 lines (34 of which are continuous) discovered by E.O. Winstedt in an 11th-century manuscript in Oxford's Bodleian Library. These lines occur in no other manuscript of Juvenal, and when discovered were considerably corrupted. Ever since Housman translated and emended the "O Passage" there has been considerable controversy over whether the fragment is in fact a forgery: the field is currently split between those (Green, Ferguson, Courtney) who believe it isn't, and those (Willis, Anderson), who believe it is.[6]

Synopsis of the Satires[edit]

Book I[edit]

Satire I: It is Hard not to Write Satire[edit]

It is hard not to write Satire. For who is so tolerant
of the unjust City, so steeled, that he can restrain himself...
difficile est saturam non scribere. nam quis iniquae
tam patiens urbis, tam ferreus, ut teneat se...

This so-called "Programmatic Satire" lays out for the reader a catalogue of ills and annoyances that prompt the narrator to write satire.[7] Some examples cited by Juvenal include eunuchs getting married, elite women performing in a beast hunt, and the dregs of society suddenly becoming wealthy by gross acts of sycophancy. To the extent that it is programmatic, this satire concerns the first book rather than the satires of the other four known books. The narrator explicitly marks the writings of Lucilius as the model for his book of poems (lines 19–20), although he claims that to attack the living as his model did incur great risk (lines 165–67). The narrator contends that traditional Roman virtues, such as fides and virtus, had disappeared from society to the extent that "Rome was no longer Roman":[7]

Dare something worthy of exile to tiny Gyara and death row,
if you want to be anything at all. Probity is praised – and it shivers in the street.
aude aliquid brevibus Gyaris et carcere dignum,
si vis esse aliquid. probitas laudatur et alget.
  • lines 1.1–19 – Since there are so many poets wasting paper and everyone’s time anyway – why not write?
  • lines 1.20–80 – The narrator recites a catalogue of social deviants and criminals that demand Satire be written.
  • lines 1.81–126 – Since the dawn of history, greed and fiscal corruption have never been worse.
  • lines 1.127–146 – The narrator contrasts a typical day in the life of poor clients with that of their self-indulgent patron.
  • lines 1.147–171 – The past cannot be worse than the present - yet one should only satirize the dead if they wish to live in safety.

Satire II: Hypocrites are Intolerable[edit]

I get an itch to run off beyond the Sarmatians and the frozen sea,
every time those men who pretend to be old-time paragons of virtue
and live an orgy, dare to spout something about morals.
Vltra Sauromatas fugere hinc libet et glacialem
Oceanum, quotiens aliquid de moribus audent
qui Curios simulant et Bacchanalia uiuunt

170 lines. The narrator claims to want to flee civilization (i.e. Roma) to beyond the world’s end when confronted by moral hypocrisy. Although the broad theme of this poem is the process of gender inversion, it would be an error to take it as simple invective against pathic men. Juvenal is concerned with gender deviance

  • lines 2.1–35 – Pathic men that pretend to be moral exemplars are much worse than those who are open about their proclivities.
  • lines 2.36–65 – When criticized for her morals, Laronia turns on one of these hypocrites and mocks their open effeminacy.
  • lines 2.65–81 – Criticism of the effeminate dress of Creticus as he practices law. This moral plague (contagio) spreads like disease passes through an entire herd of livestock or a bunch of grapes.
  • lines 2.82–116 – Effeminate dress is the gateway to complete gender inversion.
  • lines 2.117–148 – A noble man, Gracchus, gets married to another man – but such brides are infertile no matter what drugs they try or how much they are whipped in the Lupercalia.
  • lines 2.149–170 – The ghosts of great Romans of the past would feel themselves contaminated when such Romans descend to the underworld.

Satire III: There is no Room in Rome for a Roman[edit]

What could I do at Rome? I don't know how to lie;
If a book is bad, I am unable to praise it and ask for one;
I don’t understand the motions of the stars – I am neither willing
nor able to predict the death of someone’s father; I never inspected the guts
of frogs; other men know all about ferrying what the adulterers send to brides;
nobody is going to be a thief with me as his accomplice,
and that right there is why I’m going in no governor’s entourage
– I’m like a cripple, a useless body with a dead right hand.
quid Romae faciam? mentiri nescio; librum,
si malus est, nequeo laudare et poscere; motus
astrorum ignoro; funus promittere patris
nec uolo nec possum; ranarum uiscera numquam
inspexi; ferre ad nuptam quae mittit adulter,
quae mandat, norunt alii; me nemo ministro
fur erit, atque ideo nulli comes exeo tamquam
mancus et extinctae corpus non utile dextrae.

322 lines. In the place where Numa Pompilius (the legendary second king of Rome) received a nymph’s advice on creating Roman law, the narrator has a final conversation with his Roman friend Umbricius, who is emigrating to Cumae. Umbricius claims that slick and immoral foreigners have shut a real Roman out of all opportunity to prosper. Only the first 20 lines are in the voice of the narrator; the remainder of the poem is cast as the words of Umbricius.

In 1738, Samuel Johnson was inspired by this text to write his "London: A Poem in Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal". The archetypal question of whether an urban life of hectic ambition is to be preferred to a pastoral fantasy retreat to the country is posed by the narrator:

As you love your hoe, live as the steward of your garden,
whence you may lay out a feast for one hundred Pythagoreans.
It is meaningful – in whatever place, in whatever backwater –
to have made oneself the master of a single lizard.
uiue bidentis amans et culti uilicus horti
unde epulum possis centum dare Pythagoreis.
est aliquid, quocumque loco, quocumque recessu,
unius sese dominum fecisse lacertae.
  • lines 3.1–20 – The narrator’s old friend Umbricius is about to depart Roma for Cumae. The narrator says he would himself prefer Prochyta to the Suburra, and he describes the ancient shrine of Egeria being put up for rent to Jews and polluted by marble.
  • lines 3.21–57 – Umbricius: There is no opportunity in Roma for an honest man.
  • lines 3.58–125 – Umbricius: The Greeks and their ways are flowing like pollution into Roma, and they are so adept at lying flattery that they are achieving more social advancement than real Romans.
  • lines 3.126–163 – Umbricius: The dregs of society so long as they are wealthy lord it over real Romans; there is no hope for an honest man in court if he is poor.
  • lines 3.164–189 – Umbricius: Virtue and lack of pretension is only to be found outside the City; at Roma everything is expensive, pretentious, and bought on credit.
  • lines 3.190–231 – Umbricius contrasts the perils and degradation of living in Roma with the easy and cheap life outside the City.
  • lines 3.232–267 – Umbricius: The streets of Roma are annoying and dangerous if you are not rich enough to ride in a litter.
  • lines 3.268–314 – Umbricius: Travel by night in Roma is fraught with danger from falling tiles, thugs, and robbers.
  • lines 3.315–322 – Umbricius takes his leave of the narrator, and promises to visit him in his native Aquinum.

Satire IV: The Emperor’s Fish[edit]

Back when the last Flavian was ripping up a half-dead
world – and Rome slaved for a bald Nero –
in sight of the shrine of Venus, which Doric Ancona upholds,
the marvelous expanse of an Adriatic turbot appeared,
and filled the nets; ...
cum iam semianimum laceraret Flauius orbem
ultimus et caluo seruiret Roma Neroni,
incidit Hadriaci spatium admirabile rhombi
ante domum Veneris, quam Dorica sustinet Ancon,
impleuitque sinus; ...

154 lines. The narrator makes the emperor Domitian and his court the objects of his ridicule in this mock-epic tale of a fish so prodigious that it was fit for the emperor alone. The council of state is called to deal with the crisis of how to cook it, where the fish can neither be cooked by conventional means due to its size, nor can it be cut into pieces. The main themes of this poem are the corruption and incompetence of sycophantic courtiers and the inability or unwillingness to speak truth to power.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's motto, vitam impendere vero (to pay his life for the truth) is taken from the passage below, a description of the qualifications of an imperial courtier in the reign of Domitian:

... nor was he the sort of citizen who was able to offer
up the free words of his heart and stake his life on the truth.
That is how he saw so many winters and indeed his eightieth
summer, and by these arms he was safe even in that audience hall.
... nec ciuis erat qui libera posset
uerba animi proferre et uitam inpendere uero.
sic multas hiemes atque octogensima uidit
solstitia, his armis illa quoque tutus in aula.
  • lines 4.1–10 – Criticism of the courtier Crispinus.
  • lines 4.11–33 – Crispinus bought a mullet for six thousand sesterces – more expensive than the fisherman that caught him.
  • lines 4.34–56 – Mock-epic narrative of the crisis of state caused by a giant turbot begins with the catch.
  • lines 4.56–72 – The fisherman rushes to get the fish to the emperor.
  • lines 4.72–93 – Crispinus and other councilors begin to arrive.
  • lines 4.94–143 – More councilors arrive and one prophesizes that the fish is an omen of a future victory. The question of what to do with it is raised, and Montanus advises that a vessel be manufactured at once suitable for its size.
  • lines 4.144–154 – The council break up, and the narrator voices his wish that all the actions of Domitian had been so meaningless.

Satire V: Patronizing Patronage[edit]

An eel awaits you – close relative of a long snake –
or maybe even a Tiber-fish spotted with gray blotches,
a home-born slave of the Embankment, fat from the gushing Cloaca Maxima
and accustomed to venture into the covered sewer beneath the center of the Suburra.
uos anguilla manet longae cognata colubrae
aut glaucis sparsus maculis Tiberinus et ipse
uernula riparum, pinguis torrente cloaca
et solitus mediae cryptam penetrare Suburae.

173 lines. The narrative frame of this poem is a dinner party where many potential dysfunctions in the ideal of the patron-client relationship are put on display. Rather than being a performance of faux-equality, the patron (Virro as in 9.35) emphasizes the superiority of himself and his peers (amici) over his clients (viles amici) by offering food and drink of unequal quality to each. Juvenal concludes with the observation that the clients who put up with this treatment deserve it.

  • lines 5.1–11 – Begging is better than being treated disrespectfully at a patron's dinner.
  • lines 5.12–23 – An invitation to dinner is a social exchange for your services as a client.
  • lines 5.24–48 – Different wines and goblets for different social ranks.
  • lines 5.49–106 – Different water is served by different grades of slaves – and different breads served by arrogant slaves. The patron gets a lobster, and you get a crayfish; he gets a Corsican mullet, and you get a sewer-fish.
  • lines 5.107–113 – Seneca and others were known for their generosity. The elite should dine as equals with their friends – clients.
  • lines 5.114–124 – The patron gets a goose liver and boar meat, but you get to watch the meat carver perform.
  • lines 5.125–155 – If you had a fortune the patron would respect you; it is the cash that he really respects. Different mushrooms and apples.
  • lines 5.156–173 – Clients who will not resist this kind of treatment deserve it and worse.

Book II[edit]

Satire VI: The Decay of Feminine Virtue[edit]

Main article: Satire VI

... I am aware
of whatever counsels you old friends warn,
i.e. "throw the bolt and lock her in.” But who is going to guard the
guards themselves, who now keep silent the lapses of the loose
girl – paid off in the same coin? The common crime keeps its silence.
A prudent wife looks ahead and starts with them.
... noui
consilia et ueteres quaecumque monetis amici,
'pone seram, cohibe'. sed quis custodiet ipsos
custodes, qui nunc lasciuae furta puellae
hac mercede silent? crimen commune tacetur.
prospicit hoc prudens et a illis incipit uxor.

c. 695 lines. For the discussion and synopsis, see Satire VI.

Book III[edit]

Satire VII: Fortuna (or the Emperor) is the Best Patron[edit]

If the goddess Fortuna wants, from a mere teacher you will become consul,
if this same goddess wants, a teacher will be made from a consul.
For what was Ventidius? What was Tullius? Anything really
other than a comet and the marvelous power of hidden fate?
Kingdoms will be given to slaves, and a triumph to captives.
A really fortunate man, however, is even more rare than a white crow.
si Fortuna uolet, fies de rhetore consul;
si uolet haec eadem, fiet de consule rhetor.
Ventidius quid enim? quid Tullius? anne aliud quam
sidus et occulti miranda potentia fati?
seruis regna dabunt, captiuis fata triumphum.
felix ille tamen coruo quoque rarior albo.

243 lines. Juvenal returns to his theme of distorted economic values among the Roman elite – in this instance centered on their unwillingness to provide appropriate support for poets, lawyers, and teachers. It is the capricious whims of fate that determine the variables of a human life.

  • lines 7.1–21 – The emperor is the only remaining patron of letters.
  • lines 7.22–35 – Other patrons have learned to offer their admiration only.
  • lines 7.36–52 – The urge to write is an addictive disease.
  • lines 7.53–97 – Money and leisure are required to be a really great poet (vates); hunger and discomfort would have hobbled even Virgil.
  • lines 7.98–105 – Historians (scriptores historiarum) do not have it any better.
  • lines 7.106–149 – Lawyers (causidici) get only as much respect as the quality of their dress can buy.
  • lines 7.150–177 – No one is willing to pay teachers of rhetoric (magistri) appropriately.
  • lines 7.178–214 – Rich men restrain only their spending on a teacher of rhetoric (rhetor) for their sons. Quintilian was rich, he was the lucky exception to the rule.
  • lines 7.215–243 – The qualifications and efforts required of a teacher (grammaticus) are totally out of proportion to their pay.

Satire VIII: True Nobility[edit]

Although your whole atria display ancient wax portraits on
every side, excellence is the one and only nobility.
Go on and be a Paulus or Cossus or Drusus in your morals –
esteem this more important than the images of your ancestors.
tota licet ueteres exornent undique cerae
atria, nobilitas sola est atque unica virtus.
Paulus uel Cossus uel Drusus moribus esto,
hos ante effigies maiorum pone tuorum.

275 lines. The narrator takes issue with the idea that pedigree ought to be taken as evidence of a person’s worth.

  • lines 8.1–38 – What is the value of a pedigree, if you are inferior to your ancestors?[8]
  • lines 8.39–55 – Many nobles have done nothing to makes themselves noble.
  • lines 8.56–70 – Racehorses are valued for their speed not their ancestors; if they are slow they will end up pulling a cart.
  • lines 8.71–86 – It is vile to rely on the reputations of others; one should be noble even in the face of danger.
  • lines 8.87–126 – Govern your province honestly. When everything else is stolen from those you rule, weapons and desperation remain.
  • lines 8.127–162 – If you live wickedly, your good ancestors are a reproach to you.
  • lines 8.163–182 – Bad behavior should be ceased in youth. The nobles make excuses for behavior that would not be tolerated in slaves.
  • lines 8.183–210 – When they bankrupt themselves, the nobles may sink to the level of the stage or the arena.
  • lines 8.211–230 – The emperor Nero utterly debased himself in these ways.
  • lines 8.231–275 – Many people without famous ancestors have served Roma with great distinction. Indeed, everyone is descended from peasants or worse if you go back far enough.

Satire IX: Flattering your Patron is Hard Work[edit]

But, while you downplay some services and lie about others I've done,
what value do you put on the fact that – if I had not been handed over
as your dedicated client – your wife would still be a virgin.
uerum, ut dissimules, ut mittas cetera, quanto
metiris pretio quod, ni tibi deditus essem
deuotusque cliens, uxor tua uirgo maneret?

150 lines. This satire is in the form of a dialogue between the narrator and Naevolus – a male prostitute, the disgruntled client of a pathic patron.

  • lines 9.1–26 – Narrator: Why do you look so haggard, Naevolus?
  • lines 9.27–46 – Naevolus: The life of serving the needs of pathic rich men is not paying off.
  • lines 9.46–47 – Nar: But you used to think you were really sexy to men.
  • lines 9.48–69 – Nae: Rich pathics are not willing to spend on their sickness, but I have bills to pay.
  • lines 9.70–90 – Nae: I saved his marriage by doing his job for him with a wife that was about to get a divorce.
  • lines 9.90–91 – Nar: You are justified in complaining, Naevolus. What did he say?
  • lines 9.92–101 – Nae: He is looking for another two-legged donkey, but don't repeat any of this, he might try to kill me.
  • lines 9.102–123 – Nar: Rich men have no secrets.
  • lines 9.124–129 – Nae: But what should I do now; youth is fleeting.
  • lines 9.130–134 – Nar: You will never lack a pathic patron, don’t worry.
  • lines 9.134–150 – Nae: But I want so little. Fortuna must have her ears plugged when I pray.

Book IV[edit]

Satire X: Wrong Desire is the Source of Suffering[edit]

It is to be prayed that the mind be sound in a sound body.
Ask for a brave soul that lacks the fear of death,
which places the length of life last among nature’s blessings,
which is able to bear whatever kind of sufferings,
does not know anger, lusts for nothing and believes
the hardships and savage labors of Hercules better than
the satisfactions, feasts, and feather bed of an Eastern king.
I will reveal what you are able to give yourself;
For certain, the one footpath of a tranquil life lies through virtue.
orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano.
fortem posce animum mortis terrore carentem,
qui spatium uitae extremum inter munera ponat
naturae, qui ferre queat quoscumque labores,
nesciat irasci, cupiat nihil et potiores
Herculis aerumnas credat saeuosque labores
et uenere et cenis et pluma Sardanapalli.
monstro quod ipse tibi possis dare; semita certe
tranquillae per uirtutem patet unica uitae.

366 lines. The theme of this poem encompasses the myriad objects of prayer unwisely sought from the gods: wealth, power, beauty, children, long life, et cetera. The narrator argues that each of these is a false Good; each desired thing is shown to be not good in itself, but only good so long as other factors do not intervene. This satire is the source of the well-known phrase "mens sana in corpore sano" (a healthy mind in a healthy body), which appears in the passage above. It is also the source of the phrase "panem et circenses" (bread and circuses) – the only remaining cares of a Roman populace which has given up its birthright of political freedom (10.81).

  • lines 10.1–27—Few know what is really Good. Wealth often destroys.
  • lines 10.28–55—One can either cry like Heraclitus or laugh like Democritus at the state of things. But what should men pray for?
  • lines 10.56–89—It is all too easy to fall from power – like Sejanus. The mob follows Fortuna and cares for nothing but bread and circuses.
  • lines 10.90–113—By seeking ever more honors and power, Sejanus just made his eventual fall that much more terrible.
  • lines 10.114–132—Being a great orator like Demosthenes or Cicero may get one killed.
  • lines 10.133–146—Lust for military glory has ruined countries, and time will destroy even the graves of famous generals.
  • lines 10.147–167—What did Hannibal ultimately accomplish? He dies of poison in exile.
  • lines 10.168–187—The world was not big enough for Alexander the Great, but a coffin was. Xerxes I crawled back to Persia after his misadventure in Greece.
  • lines 10.188–209—Long life just means ugliness, helplessness, impotence, and the loss of all pleasure.
  • lines 10.209–239—Old people are deaf and full of diseases. Dementia is the worst affliction of all.
  • lines 10.240–272—Old people just live to see the funerals of their children and loved ones, like Nestor or Priam.
  • lines 10.273–288—Many men would have been thought fortunate if they had died before a late disaster overtook them: e.g. Croesus, Marius, and Pompey.
  • lines 10.289–309—Beauty is inimical to a person’s virtue. Even if they remain untouched by corruption, it makes them objects of lust for perverts.
  • lines 10.310–345—Beautiful men tend to become noted adulterers, risking their lives. Even if they are unwilling like Hippolytus, the wrath of scorned women may destroy them.
  • lines 10.346–366—Is there nothing to pray for then? Trust the gods to choose what is best; they love humans more than we do ourselves, but if you must pray for something, "[i]t is to be prayed that the mind be sound in a sound body..." (the excerpt above).

Satire XI: Dinner and a Moral[edit]

Our humble home does not take up such trifles. Another man will hear
the clacks of castanets along with words that a naked slave standing
for sale in a smelly brothel would refrain from; another man will enjoy
obscene voices and every art of lust, a man
who wets his inlaid floor of Lacedaemonian marbles with spit-out wine
Our dinner party today will provide other amusements.
The author of the Iliad will sing, and the poems of Vergil
that make the supremacy of Homer doubtful.
What does it matter by what voice such verses are read?
non capit has nugas humilis domus. audiat ille
testarum crepitus cum uerbis, nudum olido stans
fornice mancipium quibus abstinet, ille fruatur
uocibus obscenis omnique libidinis arte,
qui Lacedaemonium pytismate lubricat orbem;
nostra dabunt alios hodie conuiuia ludos:
conditor Iliados cantabitur atque Maronis
altisoni dubiam facientia carmina palmam.
quid refert, tales uersus qua uoce legantur?

208 lines. The main themes of this poem are self-awareness and moderation. The poem explicitly mentions one apothegm γνῶθι σεαυτόν (know thyself) from the temple of Apollo at Delphi, while its theme calls to mind another μηδέν ἄγαν (nothing in excess). The subject, in this instance, is the role of food and the cena (formal dinner) in Roman society. The narrator contrasts the ruinous spending habits of gourmands with the moderation of a simple meal of home-grown foods in the manner of the mythical ancient Romans.

  • lines 11.1–55 – People that refuse to limit their gourmet habits, even in the face of having to do so on credit, soon endure poverty and consequently inferior food. The advice of Apollo to know thyself should be heeded – not just for ambitions and endeavors, but also for what should be spent on a fish.
  • lines 11.56–89 – The narrator invites a Persicus to come to his house for dinner to see whether his actions match his rhetoric. The dinner will include only home-grown foods from the narrator’s Tiburtine land. Long ago, the noble Curius cooked things for himself that a slave on a chain-gang would reject now.
  • lines 11.90–119 – The ancient Romans did not care for luxuries and Greek art. A Jupiter made of terracotta saved the city from the Gauls.
  • lines 11.120–135 – Now rich people get no enjoyment from delicacies unless they eat from tables decorated with ivory. The narrator claims that his food is unharmed, despite owning no ivory.
  • lines 11.136–161 – The narrator promises no professional meat carver or exotic slave servers, nor are his slave boys destined for emasculation and use as sexual toys.
  • lines 11.162–182 – In place of a pornographic Spanish dance show, there will be poetry.
  • lines 11.183–208 – Rather than endure the annoyance of all Roma at the Circus Maximus during the Megalensian Games, the narrator invites his addressee to shake off his cares and come to a simple dinner.

Satire XII: True Friendship[edit]

Lest these actions seem suspicious to you Corvinus, this Catullus
for whose return I am placing so much on these altars, has
three little heirs. It would be fun to wait for someone to
pay out a sick (and in fact closing its eyes) hen for a friend
so “sterile;” truly, this is too much expense, and
no quail ever died for a father of children. If rich and childless
Gallitta and Pacius begin to feel a chill, the entire portico
is clothed with vows posted-up in the prescribed way
there are those who would promise a one-hundred-cow sacrifice
only because there are no elephants for sale here, ...
neu suspecta tibi sint haec, Coruine, Catullus,
pro cuius reditu tot pono altaria, paruos
tres habet heredes. libet expectare quis aegram
et claudentem oculos gallinam inpendat amico
tam sterili; uerum haec nimia est inpensa, coturnix
nulla umquam pro patre cadet. sentire calorem
si coepit locuples Gallitta et Pacius orbi,
legitime fixis uestitur tota libellis
porticus, existunt qui promittant hecatomben,
quatenus hic non sunt nec uenales elephanti,

130 lines. The narrator describes to his addressee Corvinus the sacrificial vows that he has made for the salvation of his friend Catullus from shipwreck. These vows are to the primary Roman gods – Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva (the Capitoline Triad)- but other shipwrecked sailors are said to make offerings to Isis. In the passage quoted above, the narrator asserts that his sacrifices are not to curry favor or gain an inheritance, common reasons for making vows among those who would not hesitate to sacrifice their slaves or even children if it would bring them an inheritance.

  • lines 12.1–29 – Description of the sacrificial preparations.
  • lines 12.30–51 – Description of a storm: this friend had been willing to cast overboard items of great value to save his own life – who else would prefer his life to his treasures.
  • lines 12.52–82 – They had to cut the mast due to the ferocity of the storm, but then the weather calmed and they limped their ship into the port at Ostia.
  • lines 12.83–92 – The narrator orders that the altar and sacrifice be made ready. He says that he will propitiate his Lares (family gods) as well.
  • lines 12.93–130 – Catullus has heirs, so the narrator is acting as a friend not a legacy-hunter (captator). Legacy hunters would sacrifice one hundred cattle, elephants, slaves, or even their own child if it secured an inheritance for them.

Book V (incomplete)[edit]

Satire XIII: Don’t Obsess over Liars and Crooks[edit]

What you suffer: they’re the misfortunes of many, at this point well-known,
and indeed trite, and drawn from the middle of Fortuna’s deck.
Let’s lay off the excessive groaning. Pain should not be
sharper than what’s called for, nor greater than the damage.
You are hardly able to endure the least tiny particle of ills
however slight – burning in your frothing guts, because a friend
did not return to you the things deposited with him under oath?
Does a man who has already left sixty years behind his back
– a man born when Fonteius was consul – get stupefied by events like these?
Or have you advanced nothing to the better from so much experience?
quae pateris: casus multis hic cognitus ac iam
tritus et e medio fortunae ductus aceruo.'
ponamus nimios gemitus. flagrantior aequo
non debet dolor esse uiri nec uolnere maior.
tu quamuis leuium minimam exiguamque malorum
particulam uix ferre potes spumantibus ardens
uisceribus, sacrum tibi quod non reddat amicus
depositum? stupet haec qui iam post terga reliquit
sexaginta annos Fonteio consule natus?
an nihil in melius tot rerum proficis usu?

249 lines. This poem is a dissuasion from excessive rage and the desire for revenge when one is defrauded. The narrator recommends a philosophical moderation and the perspective that comes from realizing that there are many things worse than financial loss.

  • lines 13.1–18 – Guilt is its own punishment. One should not overreact to ill-use.
  • lines 13.19–70 – Philosophy and life-experience offer a defense against Fortuna. There are hardly as many good people as the gates of Egyptian Thebes (100) or even as the mouths of the Nile (9). The Golden Age was infinitely superior to the present age, an age so corrupt there is not even an appropriate metal to name it.
  • lines 13.71–85 – Perjurers will swear on the arms of all the gods to deny their debts.
  • lines 13.86–119 – Some believe that everything is a product of chance, and so do not fear to perjure themselves on the altars of the gods. Others rationalize that the wrath of the gods, though great, is very slow in coming.
  • lines 13.120–134 – It takes no philosopher to realize that there are many worse wrongs than being defrauded. A financial loss is mourned more than a death, and it is mourned with real tears.
  • lines 13.135–173 – It is silly to be surprised by the number and magnitude of the crimes put to trial at Roma, as silly as to be surprised by a German having blue eyes.
  • lines 13.174–209 – Even execution of a criminal would not undo their crime; only the uneducated think that revenge is a Good. That is not what the philosophers Chrysippos, Thales, or Socrates would say. The narrator makes an extended reference to the story of a corrupt Spartan’s consultation of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi from Herodotus (6.86). The mere intention to do evil is guilt.
  • lines 13.210–249 – Consciousness of one’s guilt is its own punishment, with anxiety and fear of divine retribution. The natura (nature) of criminals is fixa (stuck) and mutari nescia (unable to be changed), and it rushes back to ways they have admitted are wrong (239–40). Thus, criminals tend to repeat their crimes, and eventually end up facing execution or exile.

Satire XIV: Avarice is not a Family Value[edit]

Although youths imitate the other vices of their own free will,
they are commanded to practice only avarice unwillingly.
For this vice deceives with the appearance and shape of a virtue,
since it has a grim bearing and a severe surface and exterior,
the miser is lauded as if he were frugal without hesitation –
as if he were a sparing man, and a sure guardian of his own possessions,
better than if the Serpent of the Hesperides or the one
from the Black Sea guarded those same fortunes.
sponte tamen iuuenes imitantur cetera, solam
inuiti quoque auaritiam exercere iubentur.
fallit enim uitium specie uirtutis et umbra,
cum sit triste habitu uultuque et ueste seuerum,
nec dubie tamquam frugi laudetur auarus,
tamquam parcus homo et rerum tutela suarum
certa magis quam si fortunas seruet easdem
Hesperidum serpens aut Ponticus. ...

331 lines. The narrator stresses that children most readily learn all forms of vice from their parents. Avarice must actually be taught since it runs counter to nature. This vice is particularly pernicious, since it has the appearance of a virtue and is the source of a myriad of crimes and cruelties.

  • lines 14.1–37 – The greatest danger to the morals of children comes from the vices of their parents.
  • lines 14.38–58 – People should restrain themselves from vice for the sake of their children. It is unjust for a father to criticize and punish a son who takes after himself.
  • lines 14.59–85 – People are more concerned to present a clean atrium to outsiders than to keep their house free of vice for their children. The tastes acquired in childhood persist into adulthood.
  • lines 14.86–95 – Caetronius squandered much of his wealth by building many fine houses; his son squandered the rest by doing the same.
  • lines 14.96–106 – People learn to be Jewish from their parents.
  • lines 14.107–134 – Avarice has the appearance of a virtue, but it leads to cruel deprivation of one’s slaves and one’s own self.
  • lines 14.135–188 – It is madness to live like an indigent just to die rich. There is no amount of money or land that will satisfy greed, but ancient Romans veterans of the Punic wars or of the war against Pyrrhus were content with only two iugera (acres) of land in return for all their wounds. Impatient greed leads to crime.
  • lines 14.189–209 – Become a lawyer, join the army, or become a merchant. Profit smells good, wherever it’s from. Nobody inquires into where you got it, but you have to have it.
  • lines 14.210–255 – The greedy son will surpass his father as much as Achilles did Peleus. Instilling avarice is the same as teaching a child every form of crime. A son whom you have taught to have no mercy will have no mercy on you either.
  • lines 14.256–283 – Those who take risks to increase their fortunes are like tightrope walkers. Fleets sail wherever there is hope of profit.
  • lines 14.284–302 – Avaricious men are willing to risk their lives and fortunes just to have a few more pieces of silver with someone’s face and inscription on them.
  • lines 14.303–316 – The anxiety of protecting wealth and possessions is a misery. Alexander the Great realized that the cynic Diogenes was happier than himself while living in his pottery home, since Alexander’s anxieties and dangers matched his ambitions, while Diogenes was content with what he had and could easily replace.
  • lines 14.316–331 – How much is enough then? As much as Epicurus or Socrates was content to possess is best, or – in the Roman manner – a fortune equal to the equestrian order. If twice or three times that does not suffice, then not even the wealth of Croesus or of Persia will suffice.

Satire XV: People without Compassion are Worse than Animals[edit]

But these days there is greater concord among snakes.
A savage beast spares another with similar spots.
When did a stronger lion rip the life from another lion?
In what forest did a wild boar perish under the tusks of larger boar?
sed iam serpentum maior concordia. parcit
cognatis maculis similis fera. quando leoni
fortior eripuit uitam leo? quo nemore umquam
expirauit aper maioris dentibus apri

174 lines. The narrator discusses the centrality of compassion for other people to the preservation of civilization. While severe circumstances have at times called for desperate measures to preserve life, even the most savage tribes have refrained from cannibalism. We were given minds to allow us to live together in mutual assistance and security. Without limits on rage against our enemies, we are worse than animals.

  • lines 15.1–26 – In Egypt they worship bizarre animal-headed gods, but not the familiar Roman ones. Similarly, they won't eat normal things, but do practice cannibalism. Ulysses must have been thought a liar for his tale of the Laestrygonians or the Cyclopes.
  • lines 15.27–32 – Recently in upper Egypt, an entire people was guilty of this crime.
  • lines 15.33–92 – Two neighboring cities hated each other. One attacked while the other held a feast. Fists gave way to stones and then to arrows; as one side fled, one man slipped and was caught. He was ripped to pieces and eaten raw.
  • lines 15.93–131 – The Vascones, however, were blameless, because they were compelled to cannibalism by the siege of Pompey the Great. Even at the altar of Artemis in Taurus, humans are only sacrificed, not eaten.
  • lines 15.131–158 – Compassion is what separates humans from animals. The creator gave humans mind (animus) as well as life (vita), so that people could live together in a civil society.

Satire XVI: Soldiers are above the Law[edit]

Let’s deal with the common benefits first off,
among which by no means the least is that no civilian would dare
to strike you – and what’s more – if he gets struck, he denies it
and isn’t willing to show his knocked-out teeth to the judge either.
commoda tractemus primum communia, quorum
haut minimum illud erit, ne te pulsare togatus
audeat, immo, etsi pulsetur, dissimulet nec
audeat excussos praetori ostendere dentes

60 lines preserved. The primary theme of the preserved lines is the advantages of soldiers over mere citizens.

  • lines 16.1–6 – The narrator wishes that he could join the legions, since soldiers have many advantages over civilians.
  • lines 16.7–34 – Soldiers are immune to justice since they have to be tried in the camp among other soldiers, where a plaintiff will get no help prosecuting them, and may get a beating in addition for their trouble.
  • lines 16.35–50 – Soldiers do not have to wait for legal action like civilians
  • lines 16.51–60 – Only soldiers have the right to make a will while their father lives – leading to an inversion of power with the soldier son being above his father.



  • Anderson, William S.. 1982. Essays on Roman Satire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Adams, J. N.. 1982. The Latin Sexual Vocabulary. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Braund, Susanna M.. 1988. Beyond Anger: A Study of Juvenal’s Third Book of Satires. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Braund, Susanna. 1996. Juvenal Satires Book I. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Braund, Susanna. 1996. The Roman Satirists and their Masks. London: Bristol Classical Press.
  • Courtney, E.. 1980. A Commentary of the Satires of Juvenal. London: Athlone Press.
  • Edwards, Catherine. 1993. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Edwards, Catherine. 1996. Writing Rome: Textual Approached to the City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Freudenburg, Kirk. 1993. The Walking Muse: Horace on the Theory of Satire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Gleason, Maud. W. 1995. Making Men: Sophists and Self-Presentation in Ancient Rome. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Gowers, Emily. 1993. The Loaded Table: Representations of Food in Roman Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Highet, Gilbert. 1961. Juvenal the Satirist. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Hutchinson, G. O.. 1993. Latin Literature from Seneca to Juvenal. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Juvenal. 1992. The Satires. Trans. Niall Rudd. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Juvenal. 1992. Persi et Juvenalis Saturae. ed. W. V. Clausen. London: Oxford University Press.
  • The Oxford Classical Dictionary. 1996. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Richlin, Amy. 1992. The Garden of Priapus. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Rudd, Niall. 1982. Themes in Roman Satire. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Syme, Ronald. 1939. The Roman Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Uden, James. 2015. The Invisible Satirist: Juvenal and Second-Century Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Walters, Jonathan. 1997. Invading the Roman Body: Manliness and Impenetrability in Roman Thought. in J. Hallet and M. Skinner, eds., Roman Sexualities, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Juvenal. 1998. The Sixteen Satires. Trans. Peter Green. London: Penguin Books.

External links[edit]

  • Juvenal's 16 "Satires" in Latin, at The Latin Library
  • Juvenal's Satires 1, 2, and 3 in Latin and English (translation G. G. Ramsay) at the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook
  • Juvenal's Satire 3 in Latin and English, at Vroma
  • Juvenal's Satires 1, 10, and 16, English translation by Lamberto Bozzi (2016-2017)
  • Juvenal's Satires in English verse, through Google Books
  • The Satires of Juvenal, Persius, Sulpicia, and Lucilius in English prose, through Google Books
  • Commentary on the Satires by Edward Courtney
  1. ^Lucilius – the acknowledged originator of Roman Satire in the form practiced by Juvenal – experimented with other meters before settling on dactylic hexameter.
  2. ^There were other authors who wrote within the genre, but only the texts of these three have been extensively preserved.
  3. ^The intended reader was expected to understand these references without recourse to footnotes or reference works on Greco-Roman myth and history. The Satires are sophisticated literary works for a sophisticated reader.
  4. ^E. Courtney, A Commentary on the Satires of Juvenal (London, 1980), p.1-2.
  5. ^J. Uden, The Invisible Satirist: Juvenal and Second-Century Rome (Oxford, 2015), p.219-226
  6. ^ abGreen, 1998, Introduction: LIX-LXIII
  7. ^ abMiller, Paul Allen. Latin Verse Satire. 2005, page 232
  8. ^The word virtus in line 20 is the ultimate source of the English word virtue and is related to the Latin word vir (elite man). While the English term has primarily a moral connotation, the Latin word encompassed all characteristics appropriate to a vir – in short excellence. The narrator's point is that the only thing that makes one rightly nobilis (known, famous) is being personally outstanding.

Satire VI is the most famous of the sixteen Satires by the Roman author Juvenal written in the late 1st or early 2nd century. In English translation, this satire is often titled something in the vein of Against Women due to the most obvious reading of its content. It enjoyed significant social currency from late antiquity to the early modern period, being read largely as a proof-text for a wide array of misogynistic beliefs. Its current significance rests in its role as a crucial—although problematic—body of evidence on Roman conceptions of gender and sexuality. The overarching theme of the poem is a dissuasion of the addressee Postumus from marriage; the narrator uses a series of acidic vignettes on the degraded state of (predominantly female) morality to bolster his argument. At c. 695 lines of Latinhexameter, this satire is nearly twice the length of the next largest of the author's sixteen known satires; Satire VI alone composes Book II of Juvenal's five books of satire. In addition, Satire VI contains the famous phrase, "Sed quis custodiet ipsos custodes?" (but who will guard the guards themselves), which is variously translated as "But who guards the guards?", "But who watches the watchmen?", or similar. In context, it refers to the impossibility of enforcing moral behavior when the enforcers (custodes) are corruptible:

... I am aware
of whatever councils you old friends warn,
i.e. "throw the bolt and lock her in.” But who is going to guard the
guards themselves, who now keep silent the lapses of the loose
girl - paid off in the same coin? The common crime keeps its silence.
A prudent wife looks ahead and starts (her infidelities) with them.
... noui
consilia et ueteres quaecumque monetis amici,
'pone seram, cohibe'. sed quis custodiet ipsos
custodes, qui nunc lasciuae furta puellae
hac mercede silent? crimen commune tacetur.
prospicit hoc prudens et a illis incipit uxor.

The Themes of the Poem[edit]

The author commences Satire VI by setting his poem in opposition to the version of Roman women seen in the poems of Catullus and Propertius:

I believe that, when Saturn was king, Chastity lingered
on the earth and was seen for a time - when a cold cave
provided little homes, and enclosed fire, household gods, cattle,
and the masters of the household in common darkness.
A mountain wife spread out her woodsy bed
with leaves, straw, and skins of local wild animals,
- hardly similar to you, Cynthia, nor to you
whose wet eye the dead sparrow stirred up -
but offering breasts that needed suckeding to huge babies,
just as often hairier than her acorn-burping husband.
Credo Pudicitiam Saturno rege moratam
in terris uisamque diu, cum frigida paruas
praeberet spelunca domos ignemque laremque
et pecus et dominos communi clauderet umbra,
siluestrem montana torum cum sterneret uxor
frondibus et culmo uicinarumque ferarum
pellibus, haut similis tibi, Cynthia, nec tibi, cuius
turbauit nitidos extinctus passer ocellos,
sed potanda ferens infantibus ubera magnis
et saepe horridior glandem ructante marito.

In the view of Peter Green, "'Cynthia' was the pseudonym which Propertius used to indicate his mistress Hostia in his poems; the girl who wept for her sparrow was 'Lesbia,' the mistress of Catullus, whose real name was Clodia." While the equation of these pseudonyms with historical women is debatable, the reference within Satire VI to Propertius and Catullus is clear.[1] In opposition to the sophisticated, urban woman of the elegiac ideal, the woman of the mythical golden age was a simple rustic. The constant touchstone of the remainder of the poem is the deviance of contemporary Roman women from an amorphous ideal located in the unspecified past. Though it is frequently decried as a misogynistic rant, feminist scholar Jamie Corson has pointed out:

Satire VI is not merely a diatribe against women, but an all-out invective against marriage. .. This decaying of Rome’s social and moral standards has caused marriage to become the offspring of greed and corruption. Men have become weak, and allow women to challenge male supremacy so that marital power relations now favour women.

The author sets the frame for his satire with a hyperbolic presentation of the options available to the Roman male – marriage, suicide, or a boy lover:

Are you even in this day and age preparing both a prenup
and an engagement, and getting a trim from a master
barber, and you have even perchance given the pledge to her finger?
You certainly used to be healthy. Postumus, are you getting married?
Tell me by what Fury and by what vipers you are goaded.
Can you endure any Master-ess when there are so many good strong ropes,
When high, vertiginous windows are wide open,
when the Aemilian bridge offers itself to you – just right next door?
Or if from so many options no mode of death strikes your fancy,
Surely you think it better that a supple boy sleep with you?
A boy, who does not conduct a nocturnal lawsuit at you, who wheedles
no little gifts from you as he lies there, and neither complains because
you are going easy on him, nor because you don’t gasp as much as he demands.
conuentum tamen et pactum et sponsalia nostra
tempestate paras iamque a tonsore magistro
pecteris et digito pignus fortasse dedisti?
certe sanus eras. uxorem, Postume, ducis?
dic qua Tisiphone, quibus exagitere colubris.
ferre potes dominam saluis tot restibus ullam,
cum pateant altae caligantesque fenestrae,
cum tibi uicinum se praebeat Aemilius pons?
aut si de multis nullus placet exitus, illud
nonne putas melius, quod tecum pusio dormit?
pusio, qui noctu non litigat, exigit a te
nulla iacens illic munuscula, nec queritur quod
et lateri parcas nec quantum iussit anheles.

Juvenal was concerned with the morality and actions of the Roman elite; Satire VI can equally be read as an invective against the men who have permitted this pervasive degradation of the Roman world. The author harshly criticizes avaricious husbands who marry not for love but for the dowry and subsequently allow their rich wives to do whatever they wish (6.136-141). Similarly, men who care only for the fleeting beauty of their wives, and then divorce them as it fades, merit condemnation (6.142-48). While women are prone to temptation, Juvenal casts men as agents and enablers of the feminine proclivity toward vice. In the written Roma of the Satires, men will even impersonate eunuchs to get unmonitored access to corrupt a woman (6.O-20-30). The literary trope of luxury imported into Roma along with the spoils of conquest and the goods (and banes) of the world is employed by Juvenal to explain the source of degradation:

Even so, do you ask from what spring these prodigies?
Humble fortune defended the chaste Latin women then,
nor did their labor, short slumbers, hard hands irritated
by Tuscan wool, Hannibal close to the city,
and husbands standing guard at the Colline tower
allow their little shelters to be stained with vices.
Now we suffer the evils of a long peace, luxury more savage than arms
presses its attack and takes vengeance for the conquered world.
No crime or act of lust is absent from where
Roman poverty has perished. To here, to these hills,
Sybaris, and Rhodes, and Miletus – flowed here -
and Tarentum too crowned and with drunken impudence.
First tainted money carried in foreign
ways, and effeminate riches shattered the ages with
foul luxury. …
unde haec monstra tamen uel quo de fonte requiris?
praestabat castas humilis fortuna Latinas
quondam, nec uitiis contingi parua sinebant
tecta labor somnique breues et uellere Tusco
uexatae duraeque manus ac proximus urbi
Hannibal et stantes Collina turre mariti.
nunc patimur longae pacis mala, saeuior armis
luxuria incubuit uictumque ulciscitur orbem.
nullum crimen abest facinusque libidinis ex quo
paupertas Romana perit. hinc fluxit ad istos
et Sybaris colles, hinc et Rhodos et Miletos
atque coronatum et petulans madidumque Tarentum.
prima peregrinos obscena pecunia mores
intulit, et turpi fregerunt saecula luxu
diuitiae molles. …

Synopsis of the Poem by Section[edit]


  • lines 6.1-24 – Parody of the golden age myth as dirty cave people. The ages of man: in the golden age no one feared a thief, the silver age had the first adulterers, and the remaining crimes in the Iron Age. The goddesses Pudicitia (Chastity) and Astraea (Justice) withdrew from the earth in disgust.
  • lines 6.25-37 – Are you preparing to get married, Postumus, in this day and age, when you could just commit suicide or sleep with a boy?


  • lines 6.38-59 – The notorious adulterer Ursidius wants a wife and children. He wants a wife of old-fashioned virtue, but he is insane to think he will get one.
  • lines 6.60-81 – Marry a woman and an actor will become a father instead of you.
  • lines 6.82-113 – Eppia, a senator’s wife, ran off to Egypt with a gladiator.
  • lines 6.114-141 – Messalina, wife of Claudius, sneaked out of the palace to work at a brothel. Lust is the least of their sins, but greedy husbands allow it for the dowry.
  • lines 6.142-160 – Men love a pretty face, not the woman. When she gets old, they kick her out.


  • lines 6.161-183 – The narrator would prefer a prostitute for a wife over Cornelia, since virtuous women are often arrogant.
  • lines 6.184-199 – Dressing and speaking Greek is not attractive, especially for old women.


  • lines 6.200-230 – Women torment even men they love and want to rule the home, then they just move on to another man – one with eight husbands in five years.
  • lines 6.231-245 – A man will never be happy while his mother-in-law lives; she teaches her daughter evil habits.
  • lines 6.246-267 – Women cause lawsuits and love to wrangle. Some elite women practice at gladiatorial exercises, perhaps with the idea of actually entering the arena.
  • lines 6.268-285 – Women cover their own transgressions with accusations of their husband’s. If the husband catches them, they are even more indignant.

Lack of Restraint[edit]

  • lines 6.286-313 – Poverty and constant work kept women chaste previously. It was the excessive wealth that came with conquest that destroyed Roman morality with luxury.
  • lines 6.314-345 – Two women profane the shrine of Pudicitia (Chastity). Description of the now perverted rites of the Bona Dea (Good Goddess).
  • lines 6.O1-O34 – the Oxford Fragment – Cinaedi (pathic males) are a moral contamination; women listen to their advice. Cups should be shattered if they drink from them. Be sure the eunuchs guarding your wife are really eunuchs. Who will guard the guards themselves? [2]
  • lines 6.346-378 – Women both high and low are the same. Women are fiscally profligate and lack foresight and self-restraint.
  • lines 6.379-397 – Some women are so enthralled by musicians that they will perform sacrifices to the gods for their victory in a contest, no less than if their own husband or child were sick.


  • lines 6.398-412 – Some women intrude into matters that pertain to men and are constantly blathering gossip and rumors.
  • lines 6.413-433 – Some women are horrible neighbors and hostesses. Keeping their guests waiting then drinking and vomiting like a snake that has fallen into a vat of wine.
  • lines 6.434-456 – Women who are educated and fancy themselves orators and grammarians, disputing literary points and noting every grammatical slip of their husbands, are repulsive.
  • lines 6.457-473 – Rich women are utterly out of control. They only try to look presentable for their lovers. At home for their husbands they are covered in beauty concoctions.
  • lines 6.474-511 – If a woman’s husband sleeps turned away, she tortures everyone at hand. Women rule their households like bloody tyrants. An army of maids is in attendance to get her ready for the public. She lives with the husband as if he were a stranger.


  • lines 6.511-541 – The eunuch priest of Bellona and the mother of the gods is given complete credence by some women. Others are fanatic adherents of the cult of Isis and its charlatan priests.
  • lines 6.542-591 – Still others listen to Jewish or Armenian soothsayers, or believe in the prophetic abilities of Chaldaean astrologers. Even worse is a woman who is so skilled at astrology that others seek her out for advice. Poor women get their fortunes told down by the Circus Maximus.

Drugs and Poisons[edit]

  • lines 6.592-609 – At least poor women will have children. Rich women instead receive abortions to avoid the bother. But husbands should be glad since they would just become the father of a half-Ethiopian anyway. Women also get abandoned children to pass off as those of their husbands; these become the Roman elite – as Fortuna laughs.
  • lines 6.610-626 – Women love to drug and poison their husbands to get their way. The wife of Caligula drove him insane with a potion, and Agrippina the Younger poisoned Claudius.
  • lines 6.627-633 – The evil stepmother would like to poison rich stepchildren.


  • lines 6.634-43 – The narrator asks if his listener thinks he has slipped into the hyperbole of tragedy. But Pontia admits to murdering her two children and would have killed seven if there had been seven. We should believe what the poets tell us about Medea and Procne, yet they were less evil than women now, because they did what they did due to rage, not money. There is a Clytemnestra on every street.


Further reading[edit]

  • Anderson, William S.. 1982. Essays on Roman Satire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Adams, J. N.. 1982. The Latin Sexual Vocabulary. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Braund, Susanna M.. 1988. Beyond Anger: A Study of Juvenal’s Third Book of Satires. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Braund, Susanna. 1996. Juvenal Satires Book I. Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Braund, Susanna. 1996. The Roman Satirists and their Masks. London: Bristol Classical Press.
  • Courtney, E.. 1980. A Commentary of the Satires of Juvenal. London: Athlone Press.
  • Edwards, Catherine. 1993. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Edwards, Catherine. 1996. Writing Rome: Textual Approached to the City. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Freudenburg, Kirk. 1993. The Walking Muse: Horace on the Theory of Satire. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Gleason, Maud. W. 1995. Making Men: Sophists and Self-Presentation in Ancient Rome. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Gowers, Emily. 1993. The Loaded Table: Representations of Food in Roman Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Highet, Gilbert. 1961. Juvenal the Satirist. New York: Oxford University Press.
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  1. ^The specific poems of Catullus alluded to are poems II and III, in which the character Lesbia first plays with, then mourns, the passer (sparrow). The narrator refers to the poems of Propertius more generally as the source of the character Cynthia: e.g. 1.1, 1.3, 1.4, et cetera.
  2. ^There is significant disturbance of the text in the area from which the Oxford fragment originated. Various attempts have been made to reorder the lines so that the sense would be more clear.


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