Allison D. Smith, Middle Tennessee State University
Allison D. Smith is professor of English and Coordinator of Graduate Teaching Assistants at Middle Tennessee State University. She received a BA in Teaching Language and Composition and an MA in Applied Linguistics from California State University, Long Beach and a Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics/Second Language Acquisition and Teacher Education from The University of Illinois, Urbana–Champaign. Her primary teaching and research areas include writing pedagogy, writing about pop culture, writing assessment, discourse analysis, and pedagogical grammar. Recent publications include a book chapter in More Ways to Handle the Paper Load, an article on journal writing for the English Leadership Quarterly, and COMPbiblio: Leaders and Influences in Composition Theory and Practice, a book focusing on the career arcs of leaders in composition. In addition, she is one of the series editors for the Fountainhead Press X Series for Professional Development. She is the co-author of THE POP CULTURE ZONE: WRITING CRITICALLY ABOUT POPULAR CULTURE (Cengage/Wadsworth, 2009). She is an active participant in the National Council of Teachers of English, the Conference on Composition and Communication, and the Research Network Forum.
Trixie G. Smith, Michigan State University
Trixie G. Smith is Director of The Writing Center and a member of the faculty in Rhetoric and Writing at Michigan State University. After earning a BA in English and Elementary Education from Mobile College, she spent several years teaching middle and high school students in southern Alabama. She then received an MA in English, an MLIS in Library and Information Science, and a Ph.D. in Composition and Rhetoric from the University of South Carolina, as well as a Graduate Certificate in Women's Studies. Her teaching and research revolve around writing center theory and practice, writing across the curriculum, writing pedagogy, and teacher training. These areas often intersect with her interests in pop culture, service learning, gender studies, and activism. Recent and upcoming publications include a book chapter in (E)merging Identities: Graduate Students in the Writing Center, several articles in Southern Discourse, and COMPbiblio: Leaders and Influences in Composition Theory and Practice, a reference book focusing on the career arcs of leaders in composition studies; she is also one of the series editors for the Fountainhead Press X Series for Professional Development. She is the co-author of THE POP CULTURE ZONE: WRITING CRITICALLY ABOUT POPULAR CULTURE. She is an active participant in the National Council of Teachers of English, the Conference on Composition and Communication, the Research Network Forum, the National Writing Project, and the International Writing Center Association.
Mirrors and Shapers of Images
Popular culturethe music, movies, and stories that we hear and see in the mass media every day of our livesplays an important role in American social life. Many of the words and images generated and marketed by the “pop culture” industry attempt to reflect the realities of American life and frequently help shape those realities. In some cases, images and sounds from pop culture are relevant to the way we see and think about government and politics.
For example, over the past 85 years, Hollywood has produced many films that use conspiracies as a central plotline. Spies and spy rings were the focus of some early conspiracy-based films. Alfred Hitchcock, later best known for such suspense thrillers as Psycho and The Birds, began his career by directing spy movies such as The Man Who Knew Too Much and 39 Steps in the 1930s. By the 1950s, film conspiracies took the form of alien invasions from outer space (e.g., the 1956 classic Invasion of the Body Snatchers), and a decade later the focus turned to government conspiracies. The plot for Seven Days in May (1964) centered on a conspiracy by military leaders to take over the U.S. government, and the 1967 spy spoof The President’s Analyst featured a similar plot undertaken by the telephone company. The conspiracy thriller genre took a more serious turn in the 1970s with the release of films like All the President’s Men (1976), an examination of the real-life conspiracy behind Nixon’s cover-up of the Watergate break-in.
In the 1990s, Oliver Stone carried on the legacy of conspiracy films with his controversial JFK (1991) and the 1995 release Nixon. Formulaic action films like Mission Impossible (1996) and thrillers like A Few Good Men (1992) featured plotlines based on government conspiracies and cover-ups. The 2005 film Syriana explored the covert ties between the government and oil companies doing business in the Middle East, and many of the “superhero” films of recent years, such as Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014) have a conspiracy as plot drivers. Conspiracies were also central to several popular television shows of the 1990s and 2000s such as X-Files, Babylon 5, 24, and Prison Break
Popular music has also mirrored the politics of the dayand at times has actually taken the lead in trying to influence and shape political action. In 1939, jazz and blues singer Billie Holiday released “Strange Fruit,” which put to music a poem about the horrors of racist lynchings in the South. Woody Guthrie’s tunes from the 1930s such as “This Land Is Your Land” and songs by Pete Seeger such as “Where Have All the Flowers Gone?” became anthems for the protest movements of the 1960s. Both of these songs made it to the top of the Billboard charts in 1962, and Peter, Paul, and Mary’s version of “Blowin’ in the Wind” sold millions of copies. The music itself became a political force as these and other popular “hits”from the Plastic Ono Band’s “Give Peace a Chance” to Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young’s “Ohio”were heard again and again at civil rights and antiwar rallies over the next decade.
In the aftermath of 9/11, popular music emerged as one of the major vehicles through which Americans were able to deal with the emotional scars left by the attacks. Some songs, like Toby Keith’s “Courtesy of the Red, White, and Blue (The Angry American),” gave expression to the renewed sense of patriotism that came to the surface immediately after the tragic events. Other releases, like Neil Young’s “Let’s Roll,” celebrated the heroism of some of those who lost their lives in the attacks, and Bruce Springsteen’s 2002 song “Empty Sky” alluded to the personal feelings of loss and anger felt by many. More recently, a number of political songs have been released in response to the controversies related to the War on Terror, and several of themincluding Pearl Jam’s “Worldwide Suicide,” Green Day’s “Holiday,” Rise Against’s “Audience of One,” and John Mayer’s Grammy-winning “Waiting for the World to Change”have received considerable airplay.
Music also played a role in the Occupy movement of 2011. Launched as Occupy Wall Street in September 2011, the movement spread quickly using “We are the 99%” as its slogan. The general theme of the protests was to focus attention on growing inequality and the need to reduce the influence of corporations in American (and global) politics and society. For its “soundtrack,” however, the movement relied on music drawn from previous protests and with a few exceptions (e.g., Makana’s “We Are the Many,” Ry Cooder’s “No Banker Left Behind,” and Everlast’s “I Get By”) did not develop an identifiable “melody.”*
As we will demonstrate in similar feature boxes for all other chapters, popular culture has always played a major role in reflecting and shaping public opinion, political activity, and even the development of governmental institutions in our nation. It is important that we recognize the role that popular culture plays in our political lives; today, the music, movies, and words we see or hear are major sources of the images and myths we have about government and politics.
*See James C. McKinley, Jr., “At the Protests, the Message Lacks a Melody, New York Times, October 19, 2011, p. C1. For a general overview of the role popular music has played in protests, see Dorian Lynskey, 33 Revolutions Per Minute: A History of Protest Songs, from Billie Holiday to Green Day (New York: Ecco, 2011).