Brave New World Science And Technology Essay

Brave New World: How Science And Technology Is Used To Enslave Humanity. An Essay Into The Destructive Nature Of Technology In Brave New World

Huxley's "Brave New World" is a novel that explores the way in which science can enslave humanity and take away individual freedom. The discourses operating in the text effectively construct social criticism and position the reader to consider the social commentary characterized in society. A discourse of class is represented in the novel in order to consider a world were people's destinies are predetermined. Politics is a dominant discourse that considers a world where individual freedom and values are sacrificed for a stable society to exist. In the novel, the family unit has been broken down and humanity has been sacrificed for promiscuity to exist through the discourse of sexuality.

Huxley strongly emphasizes on the discourse of class to consider a world where social conditioning controls the daily functioning of society. In Huxley's dystopia world people are conditioned through behaviourism and hypnopaedia in order to form a stable society.

They are engineered to be content with their rank in a world where love, viviparous reproduction and knowledge of anything beyond their status serves no purpose. For the few individuals who do not feel content, they are sent to islands and labelled as an outsider. In the novel, John the Savage is a character who is rejected by society, a state of mind that Bernard Marx could also identify with sympathetically. "Alone, alone....'So am I,' he said, on a gush of confidingness. 'Terribly alone." (pg 124). Through the World State Motto, "Community, Identity, Stability", Huxley is bringing forward the message that building community and identity serve to create stability, which is the umbrella that all other values fall under in this civilisation. The discourse of class represented in the novel constructs the ideologies of a world where social forces can lead to a loss of individual freedom.

Huxley creates a dark version of reality through the discourse of politics where the state has ultimate control. In the novel, "History is bunk" (pg 34) and god is non-existent. Henry Ford is elevated to a god-like structure and the cross is relaced with a 'T'. "God isn't compatible with machinery and scientific medicine and universal happiness". However, this vague religion that society conforms to is not for spiritual purposes of the mind, rather for pleasure-seeking experiences of the bodies. Through the character of John, the author focuses on the powerful and evil nature of science and how, ultimately, man will become the slave of machines. During the conversation between John and the World Controller Mustapha Mond, the savage states, "But I don't comfort. I want God, I want poetry, I want real danger, I want freedom. I want sin (Pg. 197). He emphasizes that a...

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Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.

The Use of Technology to Control Society

Brave New World warns of the dangers of giving the state control over new and powerful technologies. One illustration of this theme is the rigid control of reproduction through technological and medical intervention, including the surgical removal of ovaries, the Bokanovsky Process, and hypnopaedic conditioning. Another is the creation of complicated entertainment machines that generate both harmless leisure and the high levels of consumption and production that are the basis of the World State’s stability. Soma is a third example of the kind of medical, biological, and psychological technologies that Brave New World criticizes most sharply.

It is important to recognize the distinction between science and technology. Whereas the State talks about progress and science, what it really means is the bettering of technology, not increased scientific exploration and experimentation. The state uses science as a means to build technology that can create a seamless, happy, superficial world through things such as the “feelies.” The state censors and limits science, however, since it sees the fundamental basis behind science, the search for truth, as threatening to the State’s control. The State’s focus on happiness and stability means that it uses the results of scientific research, inasmuch as they contribute to technologies of control, but does not support science itself.

The Consumer Society

It is important to understand that Brave New World is not simply a warning about what could happen to society if things go wrong, it is also a satire of the society in which Huxley existed, and which still exists today. While the attitudes and behaviors of World State citizens at first appear bizarre, cruel, or scandalous, many clues point to the conclusion that the World State is simply an extreme—but logically developed—version of our society’s economic values, in which individual happiness is defined as the ability to satisfy needs, and success as a society is equated with economic growth and prosperity.

The Incompatibility of Happiness and Truth

Brave New World is full of characters who do everything they can to avoid facing the truth about their own situations. The almost universal use of the drug soma is probably the most pervasive example of such willful self-delusion. Soma clouds the realities of the present and replaces them with happy hallucinations, and is thus a tool for promoting social stability. But even Shakespeare can be used to avoid facing the truth, as John demonstrates by his insistence on viewing Lenina through the lens of Shakespeare’s world, first as a Juliet and later as an “impudent strumpet.” According to Mustapha Mond, the World State prioritizes happiness at the expense of truth by design: he believes that people are better off with happiness than with truth.

What are these two abstract entities that Mond juxtaposes? It seems clear enough from Mond’s argument that happiness refers to the immediate gratification of every citizen’s desire for food, sex, drugs, nice clothes, and other consumer items. It is less clear what Mond means by truth, or specifically what truths he sees the World State society as covering up. From Mond’s discussion with John, it is possible to identify two main types of truth that the World State seeks to eliminate. First, as Mond’s own past indicates, the World State controls and muffles all efforts by citizens to gain any sort of scientific, or empirical truth. Second, the government attempts to destroy all kinds of “human” truths, such as love, friendship, and personal connection. These two types of truth are quite different from each other: objective truth involves coming to a definitive conclusion of fact, while a “human” truth can only be explored, not defined. Yet both kinds of truth are united in the passion that an individual might feel for them. As a young man, Mustapha Mond became enraptured with the delight of making discoveries, just as John loves the language and intensity of Shakespeare. The search for truth then, also seems to involve a great deal of individual effort, of striving and fighting against odds. The very will to search for truth is an individual desire that the communal society of Brave New World, based as it is on anonymity and lack of thought, cannot allow to exist. Truth and individuality thus become entwined in the novel’s thematic structure.

The Dangers of an All-Powerful State

Like George Orwell’s 1984, this novel depicts a dystopia in which an all-powerful state controls the behaviors and actions of its people in order to preserve its own stability and power. But a major difference between the two is that, whereas in 1984 control is maintained by constant government surveillance, secret police, and torture, power in Brave New World is maintained through technological interventions that start before birth and last until death, and that actually change what people want. The government of 1984 maintains power through force and intimidation. The government of Brave New World retains control by making its citizens so happy and superficially fulfilled that they don’t care about their personal freedom. In Brave New World the consequences of state control are a loss of dignity, morals, values, and emotions—in short, a loss of humanity.

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