Ethics and morality
A very brief overview of all aspects of morality:
When many people see the word "morality," their first thought often relates to sexual activity of some type. Many individuals and groups, like us, use much broader definitions.
Morality can be defined as a system of criteria that determine whether a specific act under defined conditions is right (moral), wrong (immoral), or neutral (without moral implications).
There are many sources of ethics and morality in use:
- Moral codes are often derived by theologians who interpret holy books, like the Torah in Judiasm, the Bible in Christianity and the Qur'an in Islam. Their conclusions are often accepted as absolute truth by believers. Unfortunately, each of these books contain apparent contradictions and ambiguities that must be harmonized. Since a person's interpretation of a holy book is heavily influenced by the interpreter's culture, theologians within a given religion -- and theologians among different religions -- often produce very different moral codes and theological beliefs. The end result is -- for example in Christianity -- that the religion consists of over 20,000 denominations, sects, traditions, etc., teaching very different beliefs and practices. This places the validity of sets of moral codes derived by humans from the Bible and similar texts, in serious doubt.
- Evolutionary sociobiologists view many human behaviors and elements of morality as having originated in primate societies among chimpanzees, bonobos, and early humans. They believe that moral codes evolved and adapted as human groups advanced from small hunter-gathering bands about 100,000 years ago, to tribes, to chiefdoms, and finally to nations circa 2000 BCE. 1
- A current and very active debate involves the "science of morality" -- the concept that superior and objective systems of morality and ethics can be derived by studying human cultures and by then applying the scientific method in order to maximize people's well being. A leading proponent of this concept is Sam Harris who advocates in his book "The Moral Landscape" "... a conversation about how moral truth can be understood in the context of science." 2
Needless to say, with such different sources from which moral systems can be derived, we can expect to be deluged for the foreseeable future with conflicting sets of moral codes concerning:
There are an enormous number of topics that we hope to be covered eventually in this section. We have just begun to scratch the surface.
General introduction to ethics and morality:
Specific topics covered:
Ethics and Morality in Philosophy Essay
908 Words4 Pages
Morality has always been an unacknowledged and crucial role in defining ethics. Principles tend to be a virtue that applies only within society and can be distinguished from law, religion, or ethics. Morality in its defining sense can be different from each other, depending on the foundations of the society that claim their morality. Different societies have a different sense of what their moral priority would be like. Their morality can be based on purity and honesty when others concerned with practices. Many philosophers encourage morality, because generally it prevents and avoids harm to any society that is formed into certain groups.
The most interesting notion of the morality comes out in a question whether it is informed through…show more content…
We have certain moral obligations, because of the nature of our human being – experience of pain or pleasure, our family bounds and or approvals or disapprovals of these. In his Enquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, Hume says that “the end of all moral speculations is to teach us our duty; and, by proper representations of the deformity of vice and beauty of virtue, beget correspondent habits, and engage us to avoid the one, and embrace the other” (Hume, pg.172). Philosopher is not trying to draw rational and scientific actions of human being, as Descartes, but rather to explain some observational facts of human nature. He reduces these facts to small and very general principles. By doing so he founds a reason for which man actually approves or disapproves morally certain kinds of behavior. The whole Hume’s philosophy is based on examination of human nature. As well as his theory of knowledge that comes from the sense experience and examination. Hume believes that knowledge even within a physical or mathematical contest comes through experience and observation. However, moral judgments depend on passions and sentiments that define approval and disapproval. Hume has a fairly positive and natural perception on moral judgments in Hume’s theory – moral sentiments. Approvals and disapprovals are necessarily connected with each other by feelings and emotions. If morality comes from sentiment,