THE FOUR NONPRODUCTIVE PERSONALITY ORIENTATIONS.(Primary reference: Man for Himself). All these nonproductive orientations are an escape from freedom --an attempt to avoid taking responsibility for ourselves. Yet we all have some degree of each of these orientations. They can be positive or negative, depending on their nature and extremity.
The receptive orientation. When extreme, the receptive orientation is the victim personified. The done-to who is not a doer. But in a subtle way they may manipulate. [In medieval times, Fromm points out, we wouldn't worry about this, but would just be whatever our social class said we would be.] The hopeful aspect is that all these types can be transformed into something more positive. For example, passivity can become acceptance. An overly submissive person may move into devotion, commitment. This can be different from the submissive quality of just taking in what the authority says without chewing on it. It may become a realistic loyalty. The person with unrealistic perceptions may become more realistic. Can develop ideals that can move them toward action in the world.
The exploitive orientation. Sometimes referred to as narcissistic. Expects to take, to grab, to snatch away from others. I'm gonna go out and get mine despite you. The world is not a safe place, I want to keep from the wolf from the door. This person feels they have to steal what they get. Pretty aggressive. One woman was an incest victim. The mother was cold and frightened. The father turned to his daughter and had an incestuous sexual relationship for about 8 years, until at age 16 she found the strength to say, "No more." This experience had such a destructive effect on her that the only way she could have a relationship with another man was to take him away from another woman. Somehow she took it on that she had taken her father away from her mother. The exploiter does not creat ideas but steals, plagiarizes them. Tends to be aggressive, egocentric, arrogant, seducing, conceited.
The hoarding orientation. Strives to accumulate possessions, power, love, and avoid disposing of any of these. Tight, constipated, squinty. Demands order, neatness. Resembles Freud's anal-retentive character type. Likes to have something, not necessarily use it. Likes to have people in their back pocket, like politicians. Many people who lived through the Great Depression developed this character orientation. Similarly, rats that are severely deprived of food at one point will, later in their lives, engage in hoarding of large amounts of food.
The marketing orientation. The In the 1950s and 1960s Sociologist David Riesman wrote about the "other directed person." This was pretty close to what Fromm meant with the receptive individual. We need receptivity. We need to take in, to be loved, but a person may not know much about how to love. The receptive type feels that his or her central task is to be loved-- "I am the center of the universe."The marketing economy says we have to sell ourselve, make ourselves into an object, commodity.There is an bsession with "packaging," with our facade.The person with the marketing orientation aims to sell himself or herself successfully on the market. This person does not experience hismself or herself as an active agent, and to a great degree is alienated from his or her human powers. The sense of self stems from the socioeconomic role one plays. "Huiman qualities like friendliness, courtesy, kindness are transformed into commodities, into assets of the "personality package" that can bring a higher price on the personality market." A person's sense of his or her own value always depends on extraneous factors, on the fickle judgment of the market about the person's value.
Blends. In real life we always deal with blends, for a person is never exclusively one of the nonproductive orientations or the productive orientation.
From negative to positive. The nonproductive orientations can be considered to be distortions of orientations that are normal and necessary.Where you put the emphasis is important. All the negative tendencies come from an impoverished view of self and world, but a person can move towar expressing them positively. Every person must be able to accept, to take to save, and to exchange. Every person must also be able to follow authority, guide others, and assert himself. Growth is possible from a starting point of any of the orientations. You don't have to become something radically different--you can change within the context of where you begin. So movement from a negative to a positive, productive stance is possible within the context of each orientation.So every "nonproductive orientation" has both a positive and negative aspect, depending on the degree of productiveness in the overall personality.
Receptive Orientation (Accepting)
| POSITIVE ASPECT |
Exploitative Orientation (Taking)
|POSITIVE ASPECT |
|NEGATIVE ASPECT |
Hoarding Orientation (Preserving)
Marketing Orientation (Exchanging)
A positive expression of the marketing orientation: Organization Development consultants packaging their transformational work in different language so CEOs won't be turned off. The problem comes when you can't separate out who you are. Willy Loman IN Death of a Salesman--a classical example. Went out each day with a smile and a shoeshine. His world was what the world wanted him to be. He never said, "I have the right to be me." When he was fired, he had no self. He had been totally identified with his role. He committed suicide.
The productive orientation. For Fromm, the highest good was the person's productive contribution to the community.Like Adler's social interest.This orientation involves working, loving, and reasoning from your center, in a way that respects both your needs and those of the other person.
Проклиная себя за то, что не забрала у Стратмора беретту, она пыталась вспомнить, где осталось оружие - у него или же в Третьем узле. Когда глаза Сьюзан немного привыкли к темноте, она посмотрела на дыру, зияющую в стеклянной стене.
Свечение мониторов было очень слабым, но она все же разглядела вдали Хейла, лежащего без движения там, где она его оставила. Стратмора видно не .