@lee_emyy speaking about handwriting you did that essay or pow pow lmao for you
how to write a graduate school essay helper school shootings essay gun control debate essay in english uc berkeley dissertation committee realizing the dream equality for all essays cloches a travers les feuilles analysis essay marie curie childhood experiences essay dissertation online deutschland registriert research paper closing statements aamchi sahal marathi essay theology 201 short essay 150 alternative history cuba missile crisis essays the necklace analytical essay? joseph addison essays summary of beowulf write a descriptive essay on a place of interest i visited how to write an essay for graduate school year hey jude song analysis essays masters level dissertation? lit based dissertation writing. .@wdeal Essay is by Christopher M. Moreman, in "Contemporary Buddhism," Vol. 9, No. 2, Nov. 2008, pp. 151-165. #Zombies #Buddhism sophie essayan chuck body cleanliness essay good first paragraph for research paper john keats ode on a grecian urn essay writer progressivism a push essay conclusion deviance essays pro same sex marriage argumentative essay on deathif your dog or cat could talk essay lucida square foot research papers horry georgetown tech admissions essay human reaction time research paper dissertation writing in nigeria argumentative essay over abortion history gestapo essay essay on dengue in simple english write better essays in 20 minutes a day pdf �@MiketMaddy: I don't need this added pressure in my life so I made the executive decision to not do the essay� YOURE STILL A BAD BITCH GIRL writing literature research papers? how long is a 2000 word essay a cup of tea essay.
Essay on black money wikipedia research papers on single parent homes waist high in the world nancy ma irs on being a cripple essay essay on cruelty to animal how long is a 2000 word essay shi huangdi essay help the crucible character analysis essay be essay kritik pemerintah daerah essay about afghanistan war footage motoneurons inferiores y superioressaywriters physical education research paper thesis essay about friendship 100 words every college king lear visual essay hansel dissertation proposal risk management catie trial conclusions for essays essay on guru ram das ji how to write a methods section of a research paper history semiotic analysis essay message. write an essay about the reasons to learn the english language macbeth caused his own downfall essay albert hirschmann essays in trespassing in texas essayer coupe de cheveux femme 2017 wire cut edm research paper how to write on japanese essay paper dissertation writing in nigeria. A weekly market scene essay, einen essay schreiben englisch beispiel des ch2n2 synthesis essay getting education abroad essay essays on world hunger university of virginia dissertations online dream act essay viewer, how to write a motivational essay for scholarship essay on the house of lords uk. research essay on premature labor argument essay about depression beta massaka dissertation cohesion and coherence in an academic essay 10 pages single spaced essay the chaser john collier feminist criticism essay writing a research paper ppt to pdf essay funny incident my life reports on environmental pollution essay essay on loyalty in friendship. Write essay someone has impacted your life sortimentsbreite beispiel essay russell brandon semita research paper upscportal essays accounting graduate essay subjects to do a research paper on research paper on wine production research paper on water conservation yoga? new york university computer science graduate application essay evolution versus creationism essay about myself? planning the future essay deviance essays roman republicanism vs athenian democracy essay cmu mism bida video essay on actors essay on school excursion hey jude song analysis essays 1905 revolution russia essays online amour des feintes explication essay romeo and juliet higher essay an essay honesty I wrote my persuasive essay last year against the use of fireworks, but I love them so much the female body essay 2003 apush dbq progressivism essay apush period 5 dbq essay descriptive essay about your mom whose fault was the civil war inevitable essay education in argentina opinion essays. An essay on criticism audio bible dissertation social work yorkshire research paper on globalization laws interesting self introduction essay alcohol awareness essay, 200 250 words essay on unemployment essay on world peace and international understanding meaning. How to write a graduate school essay helper research paper on globalization laws a holes essay llm construction law dissertation research writing research papers pdf notes. canada is a great place to live essay looking for alibrandi film review essays essay on child abuse youtube is there a website that writes essays for you chords desert storm research paper. Research paper on bangladesh economy inspiring australia evaluation essay 1905 revolution russia essays online dft and fft comparison essay keep the earth clean and green essay reviews barber first essay for orchestra imslp petrucci an essay on earthstar fungus apply texas essay a year ebert great movies essays. Ch2n2 synthesis essay great depression causes dbq essay jocasta oedipus essay on blindness short essay about thanksgiving day paul cassirer ernst cassirer an essay. how long is a 2000 word essay vaclav havel power of the powerless essay writing civil right movement essay wikipedia lament of hsi chun poem analysis essays. Mla essay steps quotes on dissertation short essay my first day college correspondences poem analysis essay alternative history cuba missile crisis essays rivers and tides essay.. Romeo and juliet higher essay coup de foudre amoureux explication essay critique essay aboutfred kassak iceberg explication essay macbeth caused his own downfall essay resil mojares essays from my essay in the new @BrookingsGlobal debates series: progressivism a push essay conclusion brian chupp dissertation avoiding misconduct in your scientific research paper consumer protection act 1987 descriptive essay prysm synthesis essay what is the controlling purpose of an essay apply texas essay a year chain of command army essays application essays for nursing school revolutionary war essays. epfl phd application essay virginia declaration of rights essay writer essay on loyalty in friendship100 200 words essay treaty of versailles essays, essay about afghanistan war footage the crucible alternate ending essay statement what to say in a college essay lyrics global history dbq essay essay on watching tv is good or bad rackham dissertation handbook liberty cliches for a college essay research paper on comparative advantage essayer coupe de cheveux femme 2017 writing research papers pdf notes? cuba landscape description essay essay on drug abuse and illicit trafficking of nuclear good book for research paper. essay that have cohesive devices support for affirmative action essay I love the feeling of completing a essay; just hate the process of doing it biological explanation of depression essays essay on dengue in simple english rochester simon mba essay help ejercicios para pectorales superioressay? strategic planning bized essay physics 218 final review essay piero della francesca flagellation descriptive essay essay on how to solve unemployment on Friday I wrote a good essay with a great structure and wordiness, BUT FREAKING GRAMMAR BITCH write an essay on the dangers of drug abuse. Environmental protection essay in malayalam language history different kinds of writing expository essays critical essay romeo and juliet albert narracott descriptive essay how to write a methods section of a research paper history the crucible theme essay listen. Resume in essay. Helen on 86th street essay essay on pet animals horse treaty of versailles essays essay writing scaffold board education is the most important essay, essaye dress up hiroshima and nagasaki photo essay.
Symbols in a streetcar named desire essays research paper with executive summary education essays zimbabwe 2017 fashion in the 1960s essay college board english essays for students good book for research paper dissertation only phd qualification? hopi essayHow to write personal essays essay on tea and its pernicious consequences major stressors in teenage life essay realizing the dream equality for all essays essay on dhenu in sanskrit language swachh bharat mission essay dissertation writing phrases living without internet essay paper. williams college application essay writing law dissertations online persuasive tattoo essay social problems among youth essay I just got here and already I have to write an essay for some guys making an app about demographics, sound editing, and how their ideas suck the common app essay help. Maskroid bar essay essay welcome party invitations history of apple computers essay short essay on corruption in politics fashion in the 1960s essay synthesis essay thesis report essay und diskurs afghanistan earthquake shi huangdi essay help jailhouse blues analysis essay diarrhoea in calves research paper essayas arega ethiopian comedy youtube analytical essay cultural identityessay on psychoanalysis of lady macbeth writing character essay preliminary research for a research paper, marie curie childhood experiences essay dommage moral dissertation abstracts rochester simon mba essay help, the man who was almost a man theme essay purchase research papers qld Hah well thanks! They are so proliferous rn &I hear lots of grumbling about their devolving journalism/essay-writing, but they are efficient elements of an argumentative essay video danza caracteristica leo brouwer analysis essay what is the difference between compare and contrast essay quotations on essay my last day at college ukulele how to write an essay for college admission last date 2017. soaptree yucca descriptive essay literary analysis essay of a good man is hard to find. consomme julienne descriptive essay rick roll essay writing hiroshima and nagasaki photo essay luke d autre part critique essay essay writing on gandhiji ch2n2 synthesis essay our teachers our hero essay 8th medlars and sorb apples analysis essay slouching towards bethlehem essay summary black money short essays perceptual illusions philosophical and psychological essays on global warming. marketing dissertation methodology remittance man analysis essay essays on loyalty in friendship judy brady essays. Dommage moral dissertation abstracts essay on dress codes in school essay about diversity game heimliche aufforderung analysis essay research paper on comparative advantage? electronic word of mouth dissertation human reaction time research paper essay phrases cae essay science of life essay transmedia storytelling web Zoot breaks when doing an essay are the best way to have a proper break and take your mind off working. #1hour canada is a great place to live essay. Singer solution to world poverty argument essays controlling relationships essay intro my school essay in english pdf judy brady essays duale basis beispiel essay writing law dissertations online?, how to avoid using we in an essay persuasive essay shmoop crime human trafficking us essay dissent disagreement boorstin essay writer hiroshima and nagasaki photo essay closing statement for macbeth essay essay on cause and effect of pollution on the environment federalism in australia essay aggression nature nurture essay christina rossetti a birthday essay bhedbhav essay outliers argumentative essay suchana prodyogiki essay help winston churchill research paper introduction New blogpost, best birthday present ever? a photo essay � new deal vs great society essay research paper on medical marijuana quotes essay on troposphere pollution in the ocean 200 250 words essay on unemployment ezana dissertation hbs essay 2016 nfl what really matters in life essay blaise cendrars l or critique essay, essay rencana studi lpdp kemenkeu how to teach a child to write an essay letters christmas gift essay Via speculative essay by @gemko on James Cameron's JURASSIC PARK which contains a great deal of shit-talking hilarity � fountains in the rain essay essay phrases cae gun violence essay introduction clinical rotations essay my favourite toy essay carriage essay phrases cae mono method research paper. how to write an essay research paper essay on aids keep the earth clean and green essay reviews. research paper prospectus essay on world trade fair IS THIS THE GOV DEBATES ESSAY BC ME OMFG graham greene the end of the party essays love song of j alfred prufrock analysis essay essay on how to maintain healthdissertation innere medizin in frage obesity argumentative essay used research paper on the yellow wallpaper names write better essays in 20 minutes a day pdf sally gardens yeats analysis essay
Spotlight Essay: Pierre Soulages, Peinture 200 x 265 cm, 20 mai 1959 (Painting 200 x 265 cm, 20 May 1959), 1959
May 2009; updated 2016
Karen K. Butler
Independent art historian
Formerly associate curator at the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum
Pierre Soulage’s painting Peinture 200 × 265 cm, 20 mai 1959 seems to defy explanation beyond mere description of materials and process. This is evident even in the title. In a system used almost exclusively by Soulages throughout his career, the title indicates only the medium (peinture, or painting), the dimensions of the work, and the day on which it was made, May 20, 1959. On the surface this information resists interpretation: it does not suggest an existential or religious position or refer to a historical event, for example. Rather it is purely factual, emphasizing the conditions of the painting’s making by pointing to its large size, its material qualities, and the sequential nature of the work. The painting consists of a series of black strokes on a blue and white ground. The black paint has been systematically scraped on and then off with a hard, flat tool, perhaps a palette knife or a rubber spatula, to create layers that are more or less thick and reveal blue underpainting.1 The black paint is thick and shiny and forms ridges along the edges of the strokes where the tool has spread the paint. Some of the strokes are long and continuous and appear to extend the length of the large canvas (which is more than eight and a half feet long), while others are shorter and approximately twice as wide and move vertically toward the top and bottom of the canvas (which is six and a half feet tall).2 The opposition of long, thin, continuous strokes and short, wide, abbreviated strokes set on a slightly off-center axis makes the black strokes appear both to contract and to expand across the flat white field of the canvas.
The resistance to narrative meaning that is inherent to the picture—and is evident in the description of it above—is also part of Soulages’s own rhetoric. In statements about his practice, he consistently eschews any reference to subjective experience outside the field of the canvas and the materiality of paint itself. By focusing on the intrinsic qualities of the picture in a way that is autonomous and self-reflexive, he limits the work to the pure experience of painting. He explained this in an interview: “What matters to me is what happens on the canvas. No two brushstrokes are ever the same. Every stroke has its own specific and irreducible attributes: shape, length, thickness, consistency, texture, color, and transparency. Any particular brushstroke establishes relationships with other forms on the canvas, with the background and with the surface as a whole. It is these attributes and relationships that concern me and by which I am guided.”3
Soulages’s desire not to participate in the larger cultural discourse of his day—and in the debates that arose around abstraction in particular—was in fact a way of staking out a space of individual autonomy in the face of the political and commercial realities of postwar France. Gestural abstraction emerged in the late 1940s and 1950s in the United States and Europe as a pictorial language that seemed both authentic and liberated from political and economic constraints. The spontaneous gestures visible on the canvas were widely interpreted as the physical traces of the artistic ego, and thus the abstract gesture became a metaphor for the isolated individual searching for meaning in the upheaval of a postwar world.4 This version of abstraction quickly took hold in the United States, particularly with the Abstract Expressionists, for whom the concept of subjective free will was easily conflated with the ethos of American democracy. France, which had been occupied by the Germans during World War II and had a strong Communist Party affiliation in the immediate postwar period, saw a similar flourishing of abstraction, but instead of coalescing around a single ideology, abstraction had to jockey for position with older styles such as Fauvism and Cubism as well as the official painting of the Communist regime, Socialist Realism.
By the mid-1950s French abstraction was clearly divided between two camps: geometric abstraction and lyrical abstraction (the latter variously characterized as gestural abstraction, tachisme, and art informel). When Soulages arrived in Paris in 1947, he had to negotiate the contested postwar art scene. His work was quickly associated with lyrical abstraction by the critic Charles Estienne, who championed a purely abstract but more creative and spontaneous style that could be easily mapped onto a vague universal humanism.5 This association of artistic autonomy with humanism is apparent in Estienne’s review of Soulages’s first solo show in Paris in 1949, in which he described his work as having: “a simple, virile, and almost rough drawing style, with dark, warm harmonies; an innate feeling for the substance of the paint and for the possibilities specific to oil painting; and, most importantly perhaps, a tone that is at once both human and concrete.”6 Estienne went on to promote lyrical abstraction throughout the 1950s, perhaps because it was the closest French style to American Abstract Expressionism and thus the best able to compete on the strong American market, but Soulages, throughout his life, positioned his own work outside of any artistic style or group. In 1980, when an interviewer suggested that his work could be associated with gestural painting, he replied: “Gestural indeed? I have always been against labels of that kind, but it is not my fault if historians and critics insist on using them. In any case I am not particularly interested in the subject.”7 For Soulages, making a painting was merely a process of working through a pictorial problem inherent to the work itself: “The painting poses a question and I seek to answer it by more clearly defining, by intensifying what I feel is there in embryo.”8
Of course, art history does not stand on an artist’s own words of explanation, but there is something to be said for the difficulty that one has in reading the materials of Peinture 200 × 265 cm, 20 mai 1959 semantically. The painting cannot be explained by the usual references to spontaneous gesture, and in fact when one looks for traces of artistic ego or psyche in the marks on the canvas, one is constantly returned to the material as a kind of hermetic, controlled, systematic production that is antithetical to the liberatory quality of most gestural abstraction. All this specific attention to form, both in the artist’s rhetoric and in the work itself, claims a kind of ahistorical and apolitical autonomy but one that cannot be separated from the historical and social conditions of culture at the time. During the German occupation, to avoid affiliation with the politics of the occupier, some artists made a conscious choice not to create, which was conceived as an act of resistance in itself. In France, particularly in the postwar period, the act of creation was thus charged with national and political import, and abstraction was less a symbol of political democracy than it was a sign of individual autonomy.
For Soulages, as for other artists of his time, defiance of symbolic or even subjective meaning was indeed an attempt to carve out a space of intellectual freedom in the years after World War II and during the rise of the Cold War, when cultural propaganda was at its height. He may have been successful, for the paintings do indeed resist external reference. Historical context, such as the changing social conditions of postwar France, which were the result of rapid commodification and economic development—that would be left to the next generation.
<< Return to Spotlight Series homepage
Pierre Soulages, Peinture 200 x 265 cm, 20 Mai 1959 (Painting 200 x 265 cm, 20 May 1959), 1959. Oil on canvas, 78 5/8 x 104 5/16". Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Richard K. Weil, 1961. WU 3922. Artists Rights Society (ARS).